1. WHAT IS COAL? HOW DID IT COME INTO EXISTENCE?

COAL is a mineral of vegetable origin, ranging in color from dark brown to black, and consisting chiefly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. When distilled coal yields coal gas and coal tar, the latter the principal source of benzine and numerous other products.

Coal is found in seams of varying thickness, which are imbedded between the rock formations of three of the five main periods in the earth's geological history, namely the second, third and fourth periods, called the palæozoic, the mesozoic and the tertiary periods, and particularly in that sub-division of the palæozoic period which is called the carboniferous period or the "Coal Measures."

The geological period represented by the rocks of the Coal Measures was one of the most remarkable of which there is any record in the geological history of our planet.

Enormous areas of the earth's surface were covered with dense forests, which grew in lagoons and marshy regions. The whole land must have been very flat in those days, and little above the level of the sea, something similar to the everglades of Florida or to the great deltas of tropical rivers, in which locations wide expanses are occupied by sluggish rivers and lagoons of fresh water, where the mangrove grows along the shore and the bottom is covered with water-logged, decaying vegetation. The climate of those times was warm, equable and moist and the atmosphere was probably rich in carbon dioxide. The growth of vegetation must have been rapid, and dark evergreen plants and ferns lent a somber aspect to the scenery. As yet there were no flowers, no birds, and none of the higher four-legged animals. How long ago this was, nobody knows with exactness. Some believe it was hundreds of thousands of years ago, others say millions.

Prolonged but very slow sinking was in progress, and when for years the vegetation had densely clothed the soil, it was carried down below the water and covered over with mud and sand. Then, by some upheaval or gradual silting up of the sea bottom, a land surface was once more formed; luxuriant vegetation again sprang up, in course of time decayed, sank and became overlaid with silt and sand as before.

The vegetable layers thus deposited, subject to the heat of the earth and of decomposition, and to the pressure of accumulating masses of stratified matter, were gradually mineralized into the brown or black rock which we now call coal.

In other cases great masses of decaying vegetation drifted out into lakes or estuaries, and were there gradually submerged, covered with debris, and similarly converted into fuel for coming ages.

The changes which have taken place in converting the decaying vegetation into coal are partly chemical, partly structural.

The oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen of the woody fibre of vegetation tend to be expelled in the form of marsh gas and carbonic acid gas, while the carbon increases in proportion as the process advances, till in anthracite coal carbon forms nearly the whole of the resultant mass. The vegetable structure disappears—peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite forming a series more and more removed from wood in composition and character.

The Coal Measures consist chiefly of beds of sandstone, shales and ironstones, throughout which the seams of coal, varying in number from a few to more than a hundred, are evenly distributed.

The fossils most common in the coal-bearing strata are plant remains, the stems and leaves of many kinds of ferns, fossil bark of giant trees. Land and fresh-water shells are also found, along with remains of fish, insects and air-breathing amphibians (animals living both in water and on land) .

The thickness of the coal seams varies considerably, from less than an inch up to 40 feet, or even over 80 feet as in one case in Wyoming, but when they are very thick they consist, as a rule, of a number of beds, separated by partings of shale or other rocks.

2. THE COAL RESOURCES OF THE WORLD

THERE are few things in this world which are the object of so many uncomplimentary remarks as statistical figures. They are called "dry," "uninteresting," "dull" and "cold" and many other similar names. In many cases this harsh condemnation of statistics is purely subjective and may be traced to a failure to really study the meaning of the figures.

In spite of this bad reputation of statistical figures we shall here describe the coal resources of the world almost entirely with columns of figures, which, in our opinion, are that much concentrated fascination. We claim that the following tables tell a more wonderful story than could possibly be conveyed in words or pictures.

Coal means wealth and. great possibilities. The absence of it means the opposite. Study these "dry" figures in detail, and you will find that they are the peep-hole through which you can look into the whole economic life of a country, and a key which deciphers its economic history in the past and gives a clue to prophesying about its future.

The world's coal supply is being used for the following purposes in the following proportions, approximately:

Tons per year Per cent
Manufacturing purposes 562,000.000

43

Heating buildings 250,000,000

20

Locomotive fuel 230,000.000 18
Coke 150,000,000 12
Steamer fuel 75,000,000 6
Illuminating gas     12,000,000        1
1,279,000,000 100

In the above few figures are compressed a large part of the useful activities of the whole world.

It certainly should be interesting to know in what countries this life-giver is to be found, and what countries, if any, have been "left out in the cold" by Lady Bountiful Nature.

The following figures have the further fascination of being authoritative, and as nearly correct as it has been possible for internationally organized geological science to make them. The tables and facts connected with them are extracts from "The Coal Resources of the World," which is the name of part of the printed report of The Proceedings of the XII. International Geological Congress, held in Toronto, Canada, in 1913, the year of highest coal production up to that time.

Anthracite, Bituminous and Lignite

Most of us have heard about anthracite coal, bituminous coal and lignite, but not everybody knows the exact difference. Anthracite is also called "hard coal," bituminous coal "soft coal," and lignite "brown coal." These names are a good help in distinguishing coal, but we will here give a short table, which gives the scientific classification in general use.

Class A
Anthracite Coal
Class B
Bituminous
Class C
Coal
Class D
Sub-bitum's Coal
Brown Coal
Lignite
Composition 1
%
2
%
1
%
2
%
3
%
Long .... Smoking Flame 30-40%
volatile matter. Very porous coke
1
%
2
%
Carbon 93-95 90-93 83-90 75-90 70-80 60-75 45-65
Hydrogen 2-4 4-4.5 4.5-5 4.5-5.5 4.5-6 6-6.5 6-6.8
Oxygen and Nitrogen 3-5 3-5.5 5.5-12 6-15 18-20 20-30 30-45
Calorific value 8000-8330 calories 8330-8600 calories 8400-8900 calories 7700-8800 calories 6600-7800 calories 5500-7200 calories 4000-6000 calories

The above table will explain the meaning of the letters A, B, C, D, where they occur in the following tables. Please note that Classes B and C together constitute bituminous coal.

Estimate of the Coal Resources of the World
(Actual, Probable and Possible Resources Added Together)
In Million Tons

Class A
Anthracite
Class B. & C.
Bituminous
Class D
Sub-bituminous
Brown Coal
Lignite
Total in million tons
Oceania 659 133,481 36,270 170,410
Asia 407,637 760,098 111,851 1,279,586
Africa 11,662 45,123 1,054 57,839
America 22,542 2,271,080 2,811,906 5,105,528
Europe    54,346     693,162       36,682      784,190
Total 496,846 3,902,944 2,997,763 7,397,553

The above figures include everything, both what is actually now in sight and those coal measures which, according to the calculations of scientists, could probably and possibly be found. The figures—7 trillion tons and more—seem tremendous, but the consumption of coal is increasing at such a rapid rate, that, if consumption were to keep on increasing at the same rate in the future, the coal resources of the world would be exhausted in 200 years. But it is not considered probable that the increase will be in the same ratio. The following table will illustrate that increase up to date.

Table of Annual Production of the Principal Countries of the World
In Million Tons

1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 1910

Australia

.... .... .... .... .... .... 4.01 6.48 6.83 10.00
New Zeal'd .... .... .... .... .... .... 0.76 1.11 1.41 2.23

China

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 14.59
India .... .... .... .... .... .... 2.65 6.22 7.92 12.09

Japan

.... .... .... .... .... .... 4.84 7.43 11.89 14.79

So. Africa

.... .... .... .... .... .... 1.40 0.76 3.22 5.50

Canada

.... .... .... .... .... .... 3.19 5.09 7.96 13.01
U. S. A 24.79 29.95 48.20 66.83 102.18 141.62 177.59 243.41 351.12 446.81
Mexico .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 2.45
Gr. Britain 99.76 112.24 135.49 149.38 161.96 184.59 194.35 228.77 239.89 264.50
Spain 0.45 0.66 0.61 0.85 0.94 1.18 1.77 2.58 3.20 3.55

France

11.84 13.30 16.95 19.36 19.51 26.08 28.24 33.40 36.05 38.57
Belgium 11.84 13.69 15.01 16.88 17.44 20.37 20.41 23.46 21.84 23.13

Germany

28.33 34.88 48.53 59.12 73.67 89.29 103.96 149.79 173.66 221.98
Au.-Hung. 2.03 8.36 13.06 14.80 20.43 26.10 27.25 39.03 40.72 38.00

Italy

.... .... .... .... .... .... 0.25 0.48 0.31 0.40

Sweden

.... .... .... .... .... .... 0.20 0.25 0.33 0.21

Russia

0.33 0.69 1.17 3.27 4.24 7.00 9.10 14.76 17.12 24.57
Other C'tries   2.71   4.04   6.26   9.28  12.45  16.89   1.75   2.90   4.55    8.00
Total 102.08 217.81 285.30 339.37 412.82 513.12 581.72

765.92

928.02 1143.38

The World's Production of Coal, 1910-1920
(Metric Tons)

Year Production
in part
estimated
Per cent
produced by
United States
1910 .......................... 1,160,000,000 39.2
1911 .......................... 1,189,000,000 37.9
1912 .......................... 1,249,000,000

38.8

1913 .......................... 1,342,000,000 38.5
1914 .......................... 1,205,000,000 38.6
1915 .......................... 1,196,000,000 40.4
1916 .......................... 1,296,000,000 41.4
1917 .......................... 1,345,000,000 44.0
1918 .......................... 1,331,000,000 46.2
1919 .......................... 1,158,000,000 42.9
1920 .......................... 1,300,000,000 45.1

The author of Coal, Iron and War sums up the situation in four points, showing what bearing the constantly diminishing coal supply may have on the world's industrial activities and thus on life in its entirety upon our planet:

(1) The coal reserves of the world are known to be very large, even as compared to a future increased demand. The period before which any trace of general exhaustion need be feared is to be measured, even from the most pessimistic standpoint, in centuries.

(2) As demand continues, however, we are steadily using coal of a little lower grade, and coal that is a little more difficult and expensive to mine. These facts have a direct bearing on future coal costs and on future manufacturing costs in other lines.

(3) The coal supplies of certain manufacturing districts and of certain countries are further advanced towards exhaustion than are those of some existing or possible competitors. There will, therefore, be seen changes in relative importance of manufacturing centers, and gradual but certain changes in kinds of industry practiced.

(4) In the very near future it is probable that the entry of new continents into the industrial field will make still greater changes in manufacturing, in world competition and in world leadership. These may bring about changes in social and industrial structure among the older nations, especially among those most hardly pressed by their own decreasing coal supplies and by the new competition.

Some pessimists might say : "Of what interest are such statistical tables and predictions to us workers? What do we care how many centuries the coal lasts? What concern of ours is it if whole industrial districts are bankrupted because their coal supply gives out? Why should we worry because industry may be moved to the tremendous anthracite fields of China? All we care about is to get a living wage, a shorter workday and decent conditions, and then let the future take care of itself."

That is the way workers have reasoned in the past, and that is the way many of them are still reasoning. But a rapid change is coming over the world. The burning question of our age is no longer wages, hours and conditions, but it is the taking over of the industries by the workers themselves through their industrial unions and the running of the industries (as well as the whole society) by the workers themselves by means of an industrial administration. Like a person who has suddenly come into a great inheritance, we have got to start to look over the property which shall soon be all ours, so that we will know what we are about, what we have got and what we ought to do.

The tables given above, as well as those which follow, are nothing but a general survey of the great inheritance which will soon fall to us when "old man" Capitalism turns up his toes, as he is liable to do one of these days. The better the workers are posted on the details of the inheritance, the better they will be able to solve the social problem with which they will be confronted. The pessimists and short-sighted porkchop philosophers, who would put up with capitalism if they only got a better feed, are out of luck. The workers will have to take over the inheritance whether they want to or not. It is either that or social destruction. Under these circumstances we need not make any further apologies for presenting these general survey tables of the coal inheritance, which is now being fraudulently and maleciously withheld from the right owner, i.e., humanity.

We will then first note that nearly all the coal is in the northern hemisphere. The figures for South America and Africa are so small as to be nearly negligible. We will get them out of the way first :

The Coal Resources of South America (Estimated Total Reserve)
In Million Tons

Anthracite Bituminous Lignite

(in million tons)

Colombia ........ 27,000 ........ 27,000
Venezuela ........ 5 ........ 5
Peru 700 1,339 ........

2,039

Argentina ........ 6 ........ 5
Chile ........    3,048 ........    3,048
Total 700 31,397 ........ 32,097

The Coal Resources of Africa (Estimated Total Reserve)
In Million Tons

Class A Class B & C Class D Total (in million tons)
Africa ........ 11,662 45,123 1,054 57,839

In regard to this African coal reserve it is well to note that the most important part of it is confined to, the southern portion of the continent which is controlled by England. The northern portion of the continent is practically without coal:

Belgian Congo ................. 990 million tons
So. Nigeria ................. 80 " "
Rhodesia ................. 569 " "
British South Africa ................. 56,200 " "
Total ................. 57,839 million tons

The Coal Reserve of Oceania,

totalling 170,410 million tons, is also largely to be found in territory over which the British flag waves :

Australia ................. 165,572 million tons
New Zealand ................. 3,386 " "
British North Borneo ................. 75 " "
Dutch India ................. 1,311 " "
Philippines .................          66 " "
Total ................. 170,410 million tons

The Coal Resources of Asia (Total Estimated Reserve)
In Million Tons

Class A Class B & C Class D Total (in million tons)
Asia ------------- 407,637 760,098 111,851 1,279,586

We will get a better conception of this high figure by stat ing that the Asiatic coal reserve is over 11/4 trillion tons. Since we got the bolshevik ruble we are getting more familiar with the word "trillion."

For the sake of comparison let us note here that of the total anthracite world reserve of 496,846 million tons, Asia has 407,637 million tons, the largest part of it in China. Put these two facts together, that China has nearly 400 million people and nearly 400 billion tons of anthracite, and more than that of other kinds of coal, and we have the foundation for an industrial era the like of which we have never dreamt of before. We cannot avoid asking ourselves the question : Are those masses and those tons going to be exploited by international capitalists, or are the Chinese work ers going to wake up out of their slumber of centuries and burn that coal in industrial furnaces of their own? In either case the Chinese are sure to "rock the boat" of society.

The Asiatic coal reserve is distributed as follows :

Corea

........................................

81 million tons
China

........................................

995,587 " "
Japan

........................................

7,970 " "
Manchuria

........................................

1,208 " "
Siberia

........................................

173,879 " "
Indo-China

........................................

20,002 " "
India

........................................

79,001 " "
Persia

........................................

       1,858 " "
Total

........................................

1,279,586 million tons

The report of the International Geological Congress says that the reserve of coal in Asia is probably underestimated, as many of the Siberian and Chinese coal fields have not been sufficiently explored to admit of an estimate of their reserves being made.

Estimate of the Coal Reserve of Europe
In Million Tons

Class A
Anthracite

Class B & C
Bituminous
Class D
Lignite, etc.
Total
in million tons

Gr. Britain & Ireland

...... 11,357 178,176 ...... 189,533

Portugal

...... 20 ...... ...... 20
Spain

......

1,635 6,366 767 8,768
France ...... 3,271 12,680

1,632

17,583
Italy ...... 144 ......

99

243

Greece

...... ...... ...... 40 40
Bulgaria ...... ......

30

358 388
Denmark ...... ......

50

......

50

Netherlands ...... 320 4,082 ...... 4,402

Belgium

...... ...... 11,000 ...... 11,000

Germany

...... ...... 409,975 13,381 423,356

Hungary

...... ...... 113 1,604 1,717
Austria ...... ...... 40,982 12,894 53,876
Bosnia & Herzegovina ...... ...... ...... 3,676 3,676
Servia ...... ......

45

484 529
Roumania ...... ...... ...... 39 39
Sweden ...... ......

114

......

114

Russia in Europe

...... 37,599 20,849 1,658 60,106

Spitzbergen

...... ......   8,750 ......

  8,750

Totals in million tons ...........

54,346 693,162 36,682 784,190

As we see from this table, coal is found in commercial quantities in practically all the political divisions of Europe. In some countries the reserve is nearly exhausted, as in Switzer-land. In others the large production is rapidly depleting the re-serve, and in Europe as a whole the duration of the coal supply, in view of the present output, is a matter for serious consideration.

It should also be noted that the high figure for Germany has been considerably decreased through the peace treaty of Versailles in 1919.

The principal anthracite fields of Europe are in the Donetz basin in Russia and in the Welsh fields of Great Britain. The largest reserves of bituminous coal are in the Belgian-German basins, although the British fields may be more easily exploited and a larger percentage of the reserves extracted. Germany and Austria have about equal amounts of the D class coals, which constitute a large part of their present output.

In this connection it is well for the thoughtful student to again remember the trillion and a quarter tons virgin coal re-serve of China and Siberia and the FIVE TRILLION tons coal reserve of North America, to which we are now coming.

The Coal Resources of North America
In Million Tons

Actual reserve in million tons

Probable reserve in million tons
Class A Cl. B&C Class D Class A Class B&C Class D

Total in
mil. tons

New Foundland

...... ...... ...... ...... 500 ...... 500

Canada

Nova Scotia ...... B 2,138
...... ...... B 7,511
...... ......
...... C       50 ...... ...... C       20 ...... ......

Ontario

...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

25

Manitoba ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

160

Saskatchewan ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

57,400

Alberta

668

B   3,209 384,908 100 B 194,883 491,271 ......
Brit. Columbia 7 B 23,764 60 1,343 B   43,925

5,136

......
Yukon ...... ...... ......

40

B        210 4,690 ......
N. W. Territories ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 4.800 ......
Arctic Islands ...... ...... ....... .....   6,000 ....... .........
Total for Canada 675 29,161 384,968 1,483 254,500 563,492 1,234,269
United States

Actual and probable reserve added together

Eastern

...... ...... ...... 16,906 494,454 ...... ......
Interior ...... ...... ......

363

478,232 ...... ......
Gulf ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

20,952

......
Northern Plains ...... ...... ......

......

41,106 1,134,000 ......
Rocky Mts. & Coast ...... ...... ......

484

335,460 692,207 ......
Coal deeply covered ...... ...... ...... ...... 604,900 ...... ......
Alaska ...... ...... ......

 1,931

    1,369    16,293 .........
Total for U. S. A. ...... ...... ...... 19,684 1,955,521 1,863,452 3,838,675

Central America

Honduras ...... ...... ....... ......         1         4         5
Total for N. Amer. 675 29,161 384,968 21,167 2,210,022 2,426,938 5,073,431

As will be seen from the above table, North America is well supplied with fossil fuel, the Palæozoic deposits of the East and the Mesozoic and Tertiary deposits of the West containing about two-thirds of the estimated coal reserve of the world.

In addition, some lignite has been found in Greenland, Guatemala, San Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Santo Domingo. A moderate reserve of coal is known in Mexico, but no estimate could be obtained for the report of the International Geological Congress..

After having made this condensed inventory of the coal re-sources of the world, we are now in a better position to judge what we ought to do, in order to come into possession of all this almost boundless wealth, which is so necessary for the welfare of humanity. And the first thing that sticks us in the eye is that we need organs, industrial organs, by means of which to take possession of the coal resources and work them. Such organs are the Industrial Unions, with their job branches and councils, organized by the I. W. W.

3. THE COAL FIELDS OF UNITED STATES AND CANADA

THE COAL FIELDS of the United States rank first in area of all the coal fields of the world, the known coal areas aggregating 339, 887 square miles out of the total 3,624,122 square miles of the United States, including Alaska, or nearly one-tenth of the total area. To this may be added 84,482 square miles sup-posed, but not definitely known to contain workable coal, and 28,470 square miles in which the coal lies at depths of 3,000 feet or more.

The United States Geological Survey separates the coal areas of the United States into six divisions.

(1) The Eastern Province, which includes all of the bituminous areas of the Appalachian region; the Atlantic coast region, including the coal fields near Richmond, Va., and the Deep River and Dan River fields of North Carolina, and—last but not least—the anthracite region of Pennsylvania.

(2) The Gulf Province, which includes the lignite fields of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas.

(3) The Interior Province, which includes all the bituminous areas of the Mississippi Valley region and the coal fields of Michigan. This province is further sub-divided into:

(a) Eastern Interior Region, embracing the fields of Illinois, Indiana and Western Kentucky.

(b) Western Interior Region, comprising the fields of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and Oklahoma.

(c) Southwestern Interior Region, which includes the coal fields of Texas.

(4) The Northern Province or Great Plains Province, which includes the lignite areas of North Dakota and South Dakota and the bituminous and sub-bituminous areas of Northeastern Wyoming and Northern and Eastern Montana.

(5) The Rocky Mountain Province, which includes the coal fields of the mountainous districts of Montana and Wyoming and all the coal fields of Utah, Colorado and New Mexico.

(6) The Pacific Coast Province, which includes California, Oregon and Washington.

The anthracite fields of the United States are confined almost wholly to an area of 485 square miles in ten counties of eastern Pennsylvania.

The Appalachian coal seams, the anthracite seams of the Eastern Province and the seams of the Interior Province were trees and ferns and herbs that waved to the moist breeze of the carboniferous period of the Palæozoic era. The Rocky Mountain fields are largely from the Mesozoic era, while the Gulf fields and those of the Pacific Coast are the youngest ones, belonging principally to the Tertiary era.

CANADA has large supplies of bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, located for the most part in the Western Interior, although there are important fields on both coasts. The total areas of the Dominion cover 109,108 square miles.

On the Atlantic seaboard there are productive mines in Nova Scotia and small workable beds in New Brunswick. The interior fields include valuable lignite deposits in Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan. The extensive coal fields of Alberta are Canada's greatest reserve. The Crow's Nest and the Elk River fields in the Rocky Mountains are important.

The Pacific Coast area embraces the fields on Vancouver Island and on Queen Charlotte Islands, the latter yielding semi-anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals.

Extensive coal and lignite deposits exist also in the Yukon district, the lower McKenzie Region and the Arctic Islands.

4. THE EARLY HISTORY OF COAL IN THE UNITED STATES

Transportation and Coal-Mining—the Industrial Siamese Twins

THE PRESENT generation might think that the early European settlers in America used coal, the same as we do. But such was not the case. As a matter of fact, the extensive use of coal did not become possible until the question of modern transportation had been solved through the construction of canals and railroads connecting with the coal regions. As long as coal had to be hauled by the wagon load over bumpy country roads there was no market for coal and no profit in coal-mining. In fact, in many parts of the country coal was a hundred years ago looked upon as a curious "black stone," which would burn, sort of a freak of nature.

The production of coal in the United States for the year of 1814 was 22 tons, while for 1821 it was only 1,322 tons. In 1820, 365 tons of anthracite were sent to Philadelphia from the head of the Lehigh River. What little coal trade there existed, was largely local. A farmer would come along with his wagon to get half a ton at a time. The scales of those days consisted of two big wooden boxes suspended from a trestle. One box would be filled with about half a ton of rocks, and when a customer happened along, the other box was shoveled full of coal until it tipped the "scales," and they called it square.

About a hundred years later, in 1918, the total coal production was over 678 million tons, with a value of over 1,828 million dollars, carried to markets in tens of thousands of railroad cars, barges and ships.

We have not the space to enter into the fascinating details of the early days of coal-mining, so we simply give some brief data.

Early History of Bituminous Coal

1679.—

Father Hennepin discovered a coal mine on Illinois River.
1684.—

William Penn granted privilege to mine coal in Pittsburgh, Pa.

1750.—

Richmond, Va., coal was mined and marketed.

1758.—

Coal was discovered in Coal Hill, opposite Pittsburgh, on Monongahela.
1766.—

Richmond coal was advertised at 12d per bushel.

1774.—

Coal was discovered at Deep River, North Carolina.
1786.—

Coal was discovered at Chinchogak Bay, Alaska.

1802.—

Initial shipment of Pittsburgh coal to Cincinnati.
1804.—

Coal was first mined near Frostburg, Md.

1810.—

Coal mined in Summit Co., Ohio.

1811.—

Coal mined in Fulton, Perry Co., Ind.

1834.—

First mention of coal in Alabama by Dr. Alex Jones.

1848.—

First discovery of coal in Washington.

1852.—

First production of coal on Pacific coast at Newport, on Coos Bay, Ore.

1858.—

Indiana block coal district opened.

1862.—

Clearfield district opened.

1864.—

Domestic soft coal at Chicago, $17.00 per ton.

1871.—

Straitsville, Ohio, district opened and began operations.

Early History of Anthracite Coal

1820.— Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co. began mining and shipping coal from Summit Hill region.
1825.— Schuylkill canal was completed from Mt. Carbon to Philadelphia.

1829.—

Canal opened from Mauch Chunk to Easton, and Delaware and Hudson Canal Co. began transporting coal from Carbondale region.

1831.—

Nesquehoning Railroad built. Morris canal opened, Philadelphia to Newark.

1832.—

Shamokin Division of Northern Central Railway origin-ally opened. Little Schuylkill Railroad began transporting coal from Tamaqua region.

1833.—

Delaware division of Pennsylvania Canal opened.

1834.—

Wyoming and State Canals opened.

1836.—

Morris Canal opened to Jersey City.

1837.—

Canal opened from White Haven to Mauch Chunk; shipments of coal began from Beaver Meadow region; shipments of coal began from Pine Grove via Union Canal; Morris and Essex Railroad opened.

1838.—

Shipments of coal began from Hazelton region.

1839.—

Summit Branch Railroad opened ; shipment of coal began from Shamokin region westward, and from Lykens Valley westward.
1840.—

Shipment of coal began from Buck Mountain region. Quakake Railroad opened.

1842.—

Philadelphia & Reading Railroad began transporting coal to Port Richmond.

1846.—

Shipments of coal began from Wilkesbarre region, via L. & S. R. R. and Lehigh Canal.

1850.—

Pennsylvania Coal Co. began business.

1852.—

Central R. R. of New Jersey opened from Elizabeth to Easton.

1854.—

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western began mining and shipping.

1855.—

Lehigh Valley R. R. Co. began transporting coal to Philipsburg.

1856.—

Treverton R. R. opened; third rail laid from Hampton Junction.

1857.—

Belvidere Delaware R. R. began transporting coal.

1858.—

Mining began in McAuley Mountain region. Lake and Bloomsburg R. R. opened.

1864.—

Stove coal sold at auction in July for $12.03 per ton.

1868.—

Lehigh & Susquehanna R. R. opened to Waverley.

1870.—

Nesquehoning Valley R. R. and Panther Creek tunnel opened; Sunbury, Hazelton and Wilkesbarre R. R. opened.

1871.—

Erie R. R. began mining and shipping coal.

1879.—

Stove coal sold at auction in September for $2.36 per ton.

The above piece of concentrated industrial history is very instructive and interesting. It shows that the history of coal production is primarily the history of the development of transportation. Since 1871, the last date mentioned in the above list, one railroad after another has entered into the various coal regions of the country and tapped them of their coal. The two industries are grown together like the Siamese twins, inseparable in life and death.

The close connection of the coal-mining industry and transportation industry is being brought home to us every day. The coal famine of 1920, which threatened to become a national catastrophe, was caused largely by a break-down of the means of transportation, car shortage etc. The workers of England have long ago clearly understood that fact and formed "the triple alliance" of coal miners, railroad and other transportation workers, which alliance has repeatedly shaken the foundation of the British empire. In the United States the workers concerned have been slower to see this natural connection. Only at this writing, early in 1922, the press brings us the news that conferences have been held between the officials of the coal miners' and the railroad workers' organizations, with a view to joint action against further wage reductions. In 100 years coal has become such a vital factor in the life of this nation that the coal miners and railroad workers in connection have absolute control of the country and its fate, if they only would act in solidarity and if they only were organized in the right manner. How long shall it be before the patient ox becomes conscious of his strength, shakes the yoke from his bleeding neck, and gores his tormentors?

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